Socio-Economic Appraisal of Farming Households in Marginal Areas in Botolan, Zambales, Philippines


  • Maria Excelsis Orden Central Luzon State University
  • Edwin E. Elane
  • Rhenalyn M. Duca
  • Nenita E. Dela Cruz Central Luzon State University
  • Nestor D. Pagaduan Central Luzon State University
  • Angelo C. Fermil President Ramon Magsaysay State University
  • Elmer P. Natividad Central Luzon State University
  • Lorenzo M. Jacinto, Jr. Central Luzon State University



farm households, lahar, rice, productivity, Botolan


Farm households in four barangays in Botolan, Zambales were studied to make a socio-economic appraisal of their condition after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 and the massive flooding in 2009 that further marginalized their farms. A self-construct questionnaire was used for 150 farming households. Socio-economic data, farm management practices, production, and income per household were described, pooled, and analyzed descriptively. As of 2018, rice farming was the main source of household income despite the land being less suitable for rice and production area reduced. There was low productivity and a high yield gap compared with the province’s and the region’s yield levels. There was high input cost in rice farming due to various factors including the marginal condition of the farms. There was low income from rice farming during both seasons, but the yield was much lower during the wet season due to lower yield.